I know what you’re thinking: if Watt’s engine could turn a wheel, why not use it to propel a cart or wagon?
Excellent question! I’m glad you asked it. With a steam engine, pumps kept mines clear of water. Much safer for the miners and their animals who worked down there. Wait—animals? Well, yes. As the miners got coal loosened from inside the mine, they’d load it into carts. The carts were pulled by horses. Their wheels rested on 2 rails so the carts wouldn’t topple over as they were pulled up the rough surface of the mine floor.
Eventually, a kind-hearted soul looked at horses struggling to haul big, heavy loads of coal (or tin, or slate) and thought: there has to be a better way to haul coal. Corishman Richard Trevithick is credited for inventing the first steam locomotive. “On February 21, 1804, Trevithick’s pioneering engine hauled 10 tons of iron and 70 men nearly ten miles from Penydarren, at a speed of five miles-per-hour, winning the railway’s owner a 500 guinea bet into the bargain.”
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