Monthly Archives: September 2019

Julius Caesar painting exercise

I just got a clamp-on holder for my phone and wanted to try this—

Update: Sorry for any confusion if you visited here in the last hour. I couldn’t get the video to show up. I’ve since added a link to Instagram. I hope that works! Thanks for your patience.

 

May we be Frank?

Throughout this history I’ve been trying to keep it zippy. Not too many words. No excess verbiage. Avoid the chit-chat. Anyway…to do that I’ve had to shrink down some larger-than-life personalities into one or two paragraphs. Charlemagne—also known as Carolus Magnus, Karl der Grosse, Charles the Great—is one guy who can hardly be covered in a book, let alone a blog post. But I’ll give it a whack.

After the western half of the Roman Empire fell to barbarian invasion in ad 476, civilization and culture had a tough time of it. From the north and west, people who would later become the French, the Germans, the Spanish and the Italians all fought within the empire. People from the MidEast also wanted to take over the empire. This state of constant warfare lasted more than a couple of centuries. Forget about culture—nobody could relax long enough to create art or music. Then in the 600s one tribe, the Franks, started fighting better than everybody else and a dynasty was begun—a ruling family who set up some stability and order using military power. The Carolingian Dynasty started with Charles Martel, then his son Pepin, then Charlemagne. Charlemagne was a ruler who rode at the head of his army and whupped the other armies. He brought more than peace to what had been the Roman Empire—he encouraged the arts, education and literature.

Remember that Christianity was the empire’s official religion since Theodosius. Pope Leo III was Charlemagne’s biggest fan and had Charlemagne crowned the Holy Roman Emperor in ad 800. After that, Charlemagne began a program of standardizing many parts of the Holy Roman Empire’s way of doing things. He relied on his right-hand man Alcuin of York to make much of this happen. Alcuin was a gifted innovator—he came up with cultural inventions that are part of our culture today.

F’rinstance, Charlemagne noticed that churches throughout the empire would sing a particular hymn, but each church used a different tune. He decided they should all sing a hymn using the same tune for that hymn, so Alcuin invented musical notation. With a songbook you can read how a tune should be sung. Charlemagne thought that the Roman way of writing (ALL CAPS) used up too much space and was difficult to read, so Alcuin invented upper-case and lower-case letters, like what you’re reading here.

Here’s why I’m telling you about Charlemagne. He liked Little Dennis’ Anno Domini system, so Charlemagne made AD and BC the Holy Roman Empire’s official way of numbering the years.

Just as it still is today.

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space

Everything AD does but backwards, in high heels

Long ago, in the dim misty recesses of history, there was a famous dance couple: Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. Their dance routines were stylish and glamorous—and captured in movie musicals so you can still watch them. Fred and Ginger made dancing look easy by putting in a lot of rehearsal time.

Ginger once joked that not only did she do everything Fred did, but she did it backwards, in high heels.

If you thought it was hard to figure out how the centuries are referred to in Anno Domini, how do we ever count back the centuries Before Christ? We live in the 2000s and call it the 21st Century. The 21st Century ad starts with 2001 and ends with 2100. How does that work in bc, where you count backwards?

Let’s pick a century. How about the 4th century? The 4th century Anno Domini started the first day of ad 301 and ended the last day of ad 400. It’s just the opposite in bc. The 4th century Before Christ started the first day of 400 bc and ended the last day of 301 bc.

Are you getting a headache yet?

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space.

What century is this anyway?

All the years in this century start with 20… So how come it’s called the 21st Century?

Well, first of all, not all the years start with 20… The very last year of this century, its 100th year, will be 2100.

It works just like your age. Are you 12 years old? That means you’re in your 13th year. When you’re in your 21st year, you’ll be 20 years old until the very last day—the day before your birthday. Then on that birthday you’ll be 21 years old and in your 22nd year.

Anno Domini is in its 21st century, and is 2019 years old. December 31, 2100 will be the last day of the 21st Century. On January 1, 2101, AD will be in its 22nd century.