The sextant

The sextant is an instrument used to determine latitude and longitude. It was invented by Edmond Halley or John Hadley or Thomas Godfrey based on Isaac Newton’s ideas. You use a sextant to measure how far above the horizon the Sun is at noon (or how high Polaris is at night).

I’ve talked about finding your latitude or longitude by measuring the angle between a line from you to the moon and a line from you to a star. How do you do that?

Sailors have been using a sextant for centuries. Isaac Newton dreamed up the idea, then Edmond Halley built one in 1692. Several refinements were made around 1730, until we finally got the good old sextant you see people using in the movies with wooden ships and guys wearing wigs. A sextant is like an astrolabe—you sight something familiar in the sky, like a star, by lining it up along a sighter or pointer or alidade. Then you mark the alidade’s position on the frame and use that information to find your location.

Instead of an alidade the sextant has a telescope you look through. Then you find both the object (usually the Sun) and its reflection in the mirror. There are 2 mirrors facing each other and smoked lenses so you don’t fry your eyeballs. One mirror is half mirror/half glass so you can see both images at the same time. You bring the image of the Sun down to the horizon by moving the arm on the sextant and—oh, who am I kidding? Do you think I know what I’m talking about? What I need is a video to show how it’s done. Luckily, there are a bunch of them on the ol’ internet. Listen to these guys.

Here’s an in-depth 4-part tutorial covering everything you ever wanted to know about how to use a sextant.: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00ZEIZsl5xk

And a guy who doesn’t own a comb but knows what he’s talking about: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrAkrgZRb9Y

The thing you have to know is: the sextant will give you a precise angle between 2 objects that you can transfer to a chart or map to get your position on Earth.

https://www.mat.uc.pt/~helios/Mestre/Novemb00/H61iflan.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextant
https://yesterdaysisland.com/navigating-the-seas/

Look! Look! Here’s a cardboard sextant you can build yourself! https://www.landfallnavigation.com/cardboard-sextant-kit.html?gclid=CjwKCAjwq832BRA5EiwACvCWsWqv38smCfmUdVE5SqxRVkVJI_R0B9aN9jSb-3oaweER7b4KTm4iJhoCUbMQAvD_BwE

Here’s a plastic sextant—https://www.google.com/shopping/product/15301038968540324177?q=navigation+sextant&prds=epd:1143652539522712674,prmr:3,tpim:CKyp-dn168W22QEQ1N-msv7m0OotGMCbhR4iA1VTRCjg3sL8BTCNyIhA,pdprs:6&utm_medium=tu_image&utm_content=eid-lsjeuxoeqt&utm_campaign=134358029&gclid=CjwKCAjwztL2BRATEiwAvnALcqb-eUHLE4Y_XEM7QpPWFcXOcl2YbghLFCIcLIG1ItYYMc__vQ3_jBoCA14QAvD_BwE

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space

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