As sailing ships were being designed bigger, speedier and lovelier—two or three tinkerers were fooling around with a way to get water out of coal mines.
Mines are dug to extract valuable minerals. Sometimes the digging will open up a spring and water flows in, flooding the mine. Horses or men worked pumps to empty the mines, but animals and people tire out easily. In 1698 Thomas Savery invented a steam pump to get water out of mines. His invention had limitations (it didn’t work if the mine were too deep) and it had an unhappy tendency to explode.
In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented a steam engine that moved a heavy beam which worked a pump. It had limitations as well—his engine needed constantly to be fussed with to keep it cool or hot, which made it inefficient. In other words, it needed lots of energy to make it put out energy.
In 1765, James Watt made some big design changes to Newcomen’s engine which made it efficient. It had a piston which could work a pump by turning a wheel.
https://www.livescience.com/44186-who-invented-the-steam-engine.html Elizabeth Palermo
https://www.livescience.com/2612-steam-engine-changed-world.html Heather Whipps