Tag Archives: Catholic Church

Honey, I started the Reformation

Martin Luther famously wrote down all his beefs with the Church and nailed them to the front door of All Saints Church in Wittenberg. They were the 95 Theses (plural of thesis)—ideas to be discussed. His goal was simply to reform the Church, get it back on track. He didn’t take into account that people were tired of overbearing institutions like the feudal system and the Church. Martin Luther had set off unintentionally the Protestant Reformation. Oops. Copies of his 95 Theses spread across Germany and Europe. People seized on these theses and seethed. The Pope was not happy with Martin Luther and put him on trial. Luther refused to take back what he said. The upshot was Luther was excommunicated—made an outlaw who couldn’t be part of the Church any more. He couldn’t even attend mass. So Martin Luther started up his own church. This branch of the Christian Church, which includes Lutheran, Presbyterian, Methodist, &c, &c, is called ‘Protestant.’ To differentiate it, the old Church is called ‘Catholic,’ which means universal.

While he was in exile (and this is why I brought up the Reformation), Martin Luther translated the Bible from Latin into German so Germans could read it. What a guy! The only problem was, handwritten books are expensive. Getting a team of monks to write out a whole bible is no picnic. The Bible (KJV) has 783,137 words. Up until around the Year of our Lord 1450, owning a bible was a rich-guy luxury, whatever the language. If only there were some way to make more bibles, cheaper and faster.**

** Martin Luther left out 7 books from his translation of the Old Testament (the Hebrew Bible) because they’d been rejected by the Jewish Council of Jamnia in ad 90. Those books are still in the Catholic Bible tucked in between the Old & New Testaments. They’re known as the Apocrypha. 

ps—Luther, like the Church he reformed, was flawed. I’d be remiss if I didn’t point out that he was capable of the antisemitism that must have been common in Europe 500 years ago—he published a screed against Jews. As I said last post: we’re imperfect; we try to learn from our mistakes and trust G-d loves us anyway.

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https://www.history.com/topics/reformation/martin-luther-and-the-95-theses
https://lutheranreformation.org/theology/sola-gratia/
https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin-luther
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/luther/
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/thesis
https://wordcounter.net/blog/2015/12/08/10975_how-many-words-bible.html
https://www.britannica.com/topic/apocrypha

Martin Luther

My take on Lucas Cranach’s portrait of Martin Luther. His studio cranked out a bunch of these. There’s one at the Metropolitan Museum in New York City. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/436047 They got Joseph Fiennes to play Luther in the 2003 movie. I think they should have gone with a beefier actor like Phillip Seymour Hoffman (wasn’t he still alive back then?). https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0309820/

I wrote in earlier posts about 2 things that were troubling about the mediæval Church:
1) the Bible was not accessible to ordinary shmos, mainly because it was in Latin. Hardly anybody spoke Latin anymore. Hardly anybody could even read.
2) the clergy sold indulgences, which promoted the idea you could buy your way into Heaven.*

Both of these conditions were troubling to a monk in Saxony (where Germany is now) named Martin Luther (ad 1483 – 1546). He was a philosopher as well as a religious scholar. His philosophical mind told him there should be nothing to stand between you and G-d. The clergy shouldn’t need to intercede on your behalf—anybody can have a conversation with G-d directly in the form of prayer.

Why? Because Jesus was crucified to pay for our sins. That’s it. Paid in full. Selling indulgences to absolve sin belittles Jesus’ sacrifice. Martin Luther put forth the idea that only your faith and G-d’s grace are needed to get into Heaven. Grace is a gift freely given. You have merely to believe in Christ’s sacrifice to benefit from it. 

* I want to reassure my Catholic Christian pals that the corruption of the Church we’re talking about was from 500 years ago. I’m not knocking Catholicism nor promoting Protestantism. Churches, like human beings, aren’t perfect. We muddle along. We try to learn from our mistakes and trust that G-d loves us in spite of them.

https://lutheranreformation.org/theology/sola-gratia/
https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin-luther
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/luther/

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Heliocentric blasphemy!

“We can’t torquemada heliocentrism; we can’t torquemada Copernicism; we can’t torquemada anything!”

We learned about how Aristotle and Ptolemy promoted the idea that the Earth is the center of the universe; she doesn’t move; all the planets and stars revolve around her. This is called geocentrism.

Copernicus had questions: if the planets and stars revolve around the Earth, howcome their orbits aren’t all perfect circles? He proposed that the Sun is the center of the universe and the planets and stars revolve around him. This is called heliocentrism.

When Galileo, with his newly-built telescope, observed moons revolving around Jupiter he could plainly see that not every heavenly body revolved around the Earth. Copernicus was right—at least Jupiter’s moons revolve around Jupiter. If Jupiter’s moons weren’t geocentric, how much else of the universe wasn’t geocentric?

This is the scientific method that is Galileo’s gift to us. He observed and asked questions and looked for proof.

Galileo was a brilliant self-promoter and made friends in high places. Nevertheless, his assertion that Aristotle was wrong got him in trouble with the Catholic Church. It’s not really clear to me what it was exactly that got him in hot water. Yes, there’s a passage in the Bible about the moon and Sun standing still (Joshua 10:13), but so what? The moon and Sun could still appear to stand still in a heliocentric universe.

It may be as simple as: Protestantism was still fresh; Christians were reading and interpreting the Bible for themselves (before moveable type only the priests had copies of the Bible); the Catholic Church’s establishment saw its power being challenged. Then Galileo came along and said everything you believe about God’s creation isn’t so. That may have been enough to cheese off the Church and put Galileo in front of the Inquisition.

Galileo did himself no favors when he published a fictional argument between 3 guys—to explain and prove his thesis—and made the guy with the pope’s point of view the moron. The upshot was heliocentrism was found to be heretical (against biblical belief) and Galileo was told never again to publish his heliocentric blasphemy. He was put under house arrest for the rest of his life.

It’s easy nowadays to paint the Church as the anti-science bad guy. This was indeed an embarrassing day for Christianity. If you look at the entire history of the Church, though, she’s done way more to encourage science and learning than to suppress it. Going back to Charlemagne, monasteries were the place you went to find books by classical thinkers, painstakingly translated into Latin by the monks. Most universities were originally Christian institutions. Anyhoo, a more recent pope finally admitted—after all these centuries—Galileo was right (thanks for linking this, Chuck Dillon!).

https://www.forbes.com/sites/briankoberlein/2016/01/07/galileos-discovery-of-jupiters-moons-and-how-it-changed-the-world/#3782907f46f0
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Galileo-Galilei/Galileos-Copernicanism
https://www.catholic.com/tract/the-galileo-controversy

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