Tag Archives: map

How to not get lost

Here’s a simple compass

The compass was developed into a compact design. Instead of balancing an iron spoon or floating a piece of magnetized iron in a bowl of water, compass designers suspended a magnetized iron arrow on a thin metal pin over a round card with directions displayed on it. The arrow and card were put in a round brass housing to protect them. Brass can’t be magnetized, so the housing didn’t interfere with the arrow’s attraction to the north pole.

This compass is designed to be used on a boat. Instead of a needle, the entire card spins on an axis to point north. The compass is mounted on gimbals—the outside ring is mounted to the wooden box on the right and left sides. The compass is mounted to the ring top and bottom. This allows it to stay level while the boat bounces around on the waves.

Compass-makers put North, South, East and West (the cardinal directions) on their compass cards, then NorthNorthEast, NorthEast, EastNorthEast, EastSouthEast, SouthEast, SouthSouthEast, SouthSouthWest, SouthWest, WestSouthWest, WestNorthWest, NorthWest, NorthNorthWest and eventually all 32 points of direction.

Compass rose

Mapmakers began to indicate North on their maps so that you could line your map up with the compass’ arrow. This became the lovely compass rose you see on those gorgeous old maps.

This is the kind of compass my pals and I used in the Boy Scouts. The ring is aluminum, I think, and has 360 degrees marked along the bottom edge. The rectangular base is clear plastic so you can see a map through it. It also has a ruler along the side. They make ’em with a magnifying glass in the plastic now.

You’re never lost if you have a map and a compass. Sea-farers were the first to use this technology but it works on land, too! There’s a scene in the movie The Big Country (it’s about a sea captain who decides to settle in the old American West) where sea-captain Gregory Peck goes exploring the countryside for a few days and all the ranchers are worried sick that he got lost in the desert. Everyone is relieved when he rides back to the ranch without a scratch. “How did you not get lost?” they want to know. Greg can’t understand what the fuss is about. “I had a compass,” he says. An epic Western—great soundtrack, too.

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/compass/

http://www.historyofcompass.com/compass-history/history-of-the-magnetic-compass/

https://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/ancient_inventions/compass2.html

https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-institute/ieee-history/history-lesson-the-magnetic-compass

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space

Where In The World Is Western Civilization?

mapWhen I talk about the part of the globe that is Western Civilization, I mean from the Tigris/Euphrates valley to the Mediterranean to Europe to the Americas. Western Civ was born in Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the southern part of Iraq. Civilization spread westward from there to lands around the Mediterranean Sea: Egypt, Israel and Phoenicia to the city-states of Europe and northward to the British Isles. From there it extended to the New World—the Americas and Australia.

So, Western Civ is made up of many people and cultures. It grew from the first civilization—the Sumerians in Mesopotamia—to the Egyptians; the Jews; the Greeks; the Romans, whose empire split into east and west; the western half of the Roman Empire became the Holy Roman Empire which reorganized itself into separate European countries. Some of those countries in turn created empires mainly by colonizing the New World. The British Empire includes Canada and Australia. The United States of America declared its independence from Britain in ad 1776.

Of course there are other non-western civilizations around the world today and throughout history. This history is simply about Western Civilization. Most important to me are the ideas. How did ancient people develop an alphabet? Whose idea was it to smelt copper and tin together to make bronze? How did they come up with literature that we still read today? How did they figure out how to measure time, or the circumference of the Earth?