Egypt was two kingdoms: the Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Sometime around 3100 bc, a ruler named Menes united the Egyptians into a single kingdom. Let’s face it, there was a bit of violence involved to achieve this unity. All Egyptians were polytheistic—they worshiped a bunch of gods. Menes declared himself the living incarnation of the god Horus. That was a clever way to give his kingship the stamp of authority. Menes promoted his divinity by publishing inscriptions that could be read throughout the new kingdom. The writing system used was ‘divine words’—hieroglyphics.
Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Reading & Writing.