Tag Archives: research

Citation, please!

If he’d burnt her omelet we’d need an egg-citation.

Standardization is a feature of civilization. The great empires standardized measurement, money, laws, highways, armies…everybody knew how long a mile is or how much a candybar costs. Remember how Charlemagne wanted to standardize music? Printed books standardize information. When you’re in school, reading a textbook, info in your book shows up on the same page in the textbook the kid next to you is reading. That isn’t true of handwritten books. Uniformity allows books to have numbered pages so we can find that information later.

That means if you’re a scholar, a scientist, or just some shmo writing a history blog, you can cite a piece of information. If I write, “In ad 878 the king of England was a not-so-good baker—he let an old peasant lady’s cakes burn,” I can cite that story in a history book so you know I’m not making it up. I’d give you the title of a book, its author, and the exact page so you can find the story. Anyone with a copy of that book will find that info. Printing made it possible to build on a body of knowledge, like history or science.

Cite: to quote by way of example, authority, or proof
A good old-fashioned citation looks like this: The Vikings, Frank R. Donovan, American Heritage Publishing, page 43
In this blog format, it’s convenient to cite by linking. Remember, though, that information on the web can be changed or deleted easily.

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Reading & Writing.

Don’t forget: I wrote another Western Civ User’s Guide! Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space.

Atomic Clocks

We’re now at the point where we can talk about…atomic clocks, which lose only one second every 100. Million. Years. Yay!

What is an atomic clock and how does it work? That’s an excellent question. Honestly, I have no idea. You would think, as an adult grown-up-type guy, I’d know something like that. I don’t. I avoided science classes in school so I could hang out in the art room.

I don’t know how you get atoms to float around in a tube so you can zap ‘em with radio waves until they change into a different energy state and bounce off a detector that counts the atoms in their new changed state and funnels the whole mess into a feedback loop…

I need to go away for a few days and marinade myself in sciency research until I figure this one out. I’ll be back. In the meantime, please enjoy this hold music—

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space