Tag Archives: Rome

We locked a bunch of astronomers in a room and you’ll never believe what happened next!

Roman astronomers trying to get the lunar and solar cycles to match up. I threw a couple of Sun-worshiping Druid priestesses in there, too.

A big headache with ancient calendars is that they had to be constantly updated to make them agree with the movements of both the Moon and the Sun. Months are based on the Moon’s cycles. Years are based on Earth’s orbit around the Sun. ‘Calendae’—we say ‘calends’—is a Latin word for ‘first day of the month.’ ‘Ides’ is the day in the middle of each month. Astronomers (scientists who study the stars and planets) would first determine the ides (when the moon will be full) for each month and calculate the rest of each lunar cycle/month from there. It is a tricky business to get the twelve cycles of the Moon to work out to be the same amount of time the Earth orbits the Sun.

Measuring distance in Rome

The Romans borrowed religion, art, architecture and literature from the people they conquered to make a hodge-podge, eclectic culture for themselves. Mostly they borrowed from the Greeks—the Greek gods got Latin names. Ares (the god of war) became Mars. Zeus became Jupiter, Hera became Juno, Poseidon became Neptune, Aphrodite became Venus.

The Romans also borrowed technology. They measured distance the same way the Egyptians and Greeks did, by using parts of a typical grown man for standardized units.

finger—digitus (1/16 of a pes)
thumb-joint—uncia (inch, 1/12 of a pes)
four fingers—palmus (1/4 of a pes)
foot—pes (plural: pedes)
one step—gradus (2.5 pedes)
pace—passus (5 pedes)

For longer distances, a mile (mille passus) was 1000 passus or 5000 pedes. (I hope I’m getting the plurals right—https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/passus)

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space