Tag Archives: time

It’s better than bad, it’s good

There is a mention of an hourglass in a ship’s inventory in the 1300s.

When you need to know where you are at sea, this is what you have to go on.

At sea, it’s difficult to know exactly where you are. No landmarks. No way to tell how far you are from land. Sailors had to be creative. To figure out distance, they used time.

Sailors liked the hourglass because it isn’t as affected by a ship’s bouncing around on the waves as a water-clock would be—it still marks an hour accurately. Smaller sandglasses with less sand mark shorter periods of time. Sailors could judge how fast their ship were traveling by ‘casting the log.’ They had a length of line—heavy cord—with a piece of wood (the log) tied to its end, and knots tied in it at regular intervals. They’d throw the log into the sea and turn the glass at the same time. The log dragged behind and pulled the line with it. When the sand ran out, they’d nip the line and count how many knots had run out. Number of knots = distance traveled in a set space of time.

If you know how fast you’re traveling, you can make a guess how far you traveled in an hour or a day or a week. This is how the sailors used to calculate where they were on the ocean.

Casting the log is said to have been invented in the 1500s. The first evidence of a ship’s log-book is from the 1600s. This is a guess, but it seems to me that the log-book would have been originally a record of the ship’s speeds—that eventually became a record of any important events that happened aboard the ship. With time, ‘log-book’ got shortened to ‘log.’

Today, people who post regularly on the worldwide web refer to their sad ramblings as a ‘web-log’ or ‘blog’ for short. Spare a thought for us poor, attention-starved souls.

Here’s an excellent video about casting the log.

https://www.britannica.com/technology/log-nautical-instrument
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chip_log
https://www.archives.gov/research/military/logbooks/naval-deck-logs.html

The secret origin of “log in”

More about time and distance.

Read this now! Time is running out!

Hourglasses are good timers that are easy to use, so they’ve been part of people’s lives for centuries. My mom used to have a little one that measured 3 minutes—just right for boiling an egg.

The hourglass became a symbol for time itself, and just how quickly it seems to pass. Go into an old cemetery and you might see one carved into a tombstone—eeek!

On some computers a little icon of an hourglass shows up to tell you that your program is still loading.

By golly, I would have committed murder to own that Wizard of Oz hourglass when I was an art student, How about the lucky prop artist who got to design it!

If you ever saw the old Wizard of Oz movie with Judy Garland, you’ll remember that terrifying big hourglass that belonged to the Wicked Witch of the West. Here’s a website that tells how hourglasses are made. This one’s good, too.

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space

Hourglasses

An hourglass is a device that measures time. It’s two glass bulbs joined together by a skinny neck. There’s sand inside, so when you set the hourglass with the sand-filled bulb on top, the sand trickles through the neck into the empty bulb below. The hourglass maker put in exactly an hour’s worth of sand, so when the top bulb is empty, one hour has passed. The whole contraption is contained in a frame so it can be stood on either end.

Hourglassses are sometimes called ‘sand clocks,’ but they’re timers. Remember the early Egyptian water clocks? They were timers, too, until Ctesibius figured how to make clocks out of them.

Legend says that a French monk called Liutprand (Lee-UT-prond) invented the hourglass in the 8th century ad. There doesn’t seem to be solid evidence to support or deny that. Charlemagne is supposed to have owned a 12-hour hourglass—Liutprand was French, Charlemagne was French, so maybe there’s a connection? And I guess I’d have to admit that at 12 hours, that hourglass was a clock.

https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-hourglass

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Everything AD does but backwards, in high heels

Long ago, in the dim misty recesses of history, there was a famous dance couple: Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. Their dance routines were stylish and glamorous—and captured in movie musicals so you can still watch them. Fred and Ginger made dancing look easy by putting in a lot of rehearsal time.

Ginger once joked that not only did she do everything Fred did, but she did it backwards, in high heels.

If you thought it was hard to figure out how the centuries are referred to in Anno Domini, how do we ever count back the centuries Before Christ? We live in the 2000s and call it the 21st Century. The 21st Century ad starts with 2001 and ends with 2100. How does that work in bc, where you count backwards?

Let’s pick a century. How about the 4th century? The 4th century Anno Domini started the first day of ad 301 and ended the last day of ad 400. It’s just the opposite in bc. The 4th century Before Christ started the first day of 400 bc and ended the last day of 301 bc.

Are you getting a headache yet?

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space.

What century is this anyway?

All the years in this century start with 20… So how come it’s called the 21st Century?

Well, first of all, not all the years start with 20… The very last year of this century, its 100th year, will be 2100.

It works just like your age. Are you 12 years old? That means you’re in your 13th year. When you’re in your 21st year, you’ll be 20 years old until the very last day—the day before your birthday. Then on that birthday you’ll be 21 years old and in your 22nd year.

Anno Domini is in its 21st century, and is 2019 years old. December 31, 2100 will be the last day of the 21st Century. On January 1, 2101, AD will be in its 22nd century.

Long time ago in Bethlehem

The custom of naming years after whoever wore the crown lasted well into the time of the Roman Empire.

Two thousand and some years ago, a baby was born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea—in the country we now call Israel. The baby was Jesus, son of Mary, the Holy Spirit in human form. He would grow up to begin a ministry that led to His crucifixion and resurrection—in order to save all of humankind. Jesus is the Redeemer; the Christos in Greek; the Mashiach in Hebrew.

The Christian evangelist Luke wrote about the Nativity before there were numbered years. How could he put a date on Jesus’ birth? Here’s how: Luke tells us that Jesus was born while Augustus was emperor of Rome and Quirinius was the governor of Syria. Luke knew his readers would remember when those guys were in charge and place Jesus’ birth in that time.

1 In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustus that all the world should be registered. 2 This was the first registration and was taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3 All went to their own towns to be registered. 4 Joseph also went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city of David called Bethlehem, because he was descended from the house and family of David. 5 He went to be registered with Mary, to whom he was engaged and who was expecting a child. 6 While they were there, the time came for her to deliver her child. 7 And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn.

In fact, it would be 5 more centuries before someone thought of numbering the years.

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space.

https://biblehub.com/library/ramsay/was_christ_born_in_bethlehem/chapter_11_quirinius_the_governor.htm

The ancient cheeks

In the ancient world there wasn’t a numbering of years as we have today. People would remember years or events by who was king at the time. For the ancient Greeks time was a cycle, so they didn’t think of time as a progression of numbered years, as we do. The Greeks of each city-state named the years after whoever was their archon (AR-kon—ruler or king) at the time. Later on the Greeks numbered years by a 4-year cycle, called an olympiad. The Olympic games were held every fourth year, then the cycle started over.

For what it’s worth, the Olympic athletes supposedly competed in the nude. The tradition may have begun when one runner somehow lost his gym shorts during a race. Okay, you guys. No. I’m absolutely not going to draw a cartoon of naked Greek runners. What a buncha sickos!

Well, okay. Maybe one cartoon.

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space.

Romulus’ days were numbered

Romulus’ 10-month calendar featured adorable wolf puppies on every slab.

The original Roman calendar was invented by Romulus, the first king of Rome, around 753 bc. The calendar started the year in March (Martius) and consisted of 10 months, with 6 months of 30 days and 4 months of 31 days. The winter season didn’t get any months with names, so the calendar year only lasted 304 days with 61 extra days in the winter. Everybody stayed home during those 61 days and looked at seed catalogues.

Here are the months of Romulus’ calendar:

Martius – 31 Days
Aprilis – 30 Days
Maius – 31 Days
Junius – 30 Days
Quintilis – 31 Days
Sextilis – 30 Days
September – 30 Days
October – 31 Days
November – 30 Days
December – 30 Days

Back to the beginning of The Western Civ User’s Guide to Time & Space

We locked a bunch of astronomers in a room and you’ll never believe what happened next!

Roman astronomers trying to get the lunar and solar cycles to match up. I threw a couple of Sun-worshiping Druid priestesses in there, too.

A big headache with ancient calendars is that they had to be constantly updated to make them agree with the movements of both the Moon and the Sun. Months are based on the Moon’s cycles. Years are based on Earth’s orbit around the Sun. ‘Calendae’—we say ‘calends’—is a Latin word for ‘first day of the month.’ ‘Ides’ is the day in the middle of each month. Astronomers (scientists who study the stars and planets) would first determine the ides (when the moon will be full) for each month and calculate the rest of each lunar cycle/month from there. It is a tricky business to get the twelve cycles of the Moon to work out to be the same amount of time the Earth orbits the Sun.

The future!

Can you see into the future? Thinking in linear time allows us to think about the future. It’s not easy, of course. People do use a timeline to plan projects and life goals, so that they can make them happen. In fact, I’m using a timeline for this project—writing this history which I plan to make into a book. Do you think about what you’ll be doing in 5 years? Successful people plan for the future. Holy cow, I sound like I’m selling life insurance.

The Torah (what Christians call the Old Testament), with its timeline of many generations of Jews, was read by ordinary people and changed the way ordinary people think about time and themselves.

In the Torah, ordinary people became important. Religious stories of other cultures were about gods and goddesses. Mortal beings had supporting roles in those stories, like when the mortal Paris judged a goddess beauty contest, or the gods created Enkidu to hang out with the semi-divine Gilgamesh. You don’t get a sense that the gods and mortals have a destiny together, because the stories don’t talk about a future. On the other hand, the stories in the Torah are about ordinary mortals who share a past and future with one God. When ordinary mortals—everybody, us—see ourselves as part of a destiny, the way we think about ourselves is changed. A person with a future, a destiny, has free-will and the mindset to break free of a cycle. You can see how a person with the inheritance of generations of history—aligned with God’s—has more free-will than the person who lives only in a cycle, the now, the present.